Category Archives: How to

Use of Signals

Why do we use signals?

Q Why do we signal?
ATo let others know what we are about to do.

Q – Why do we check our mirrors before we signal?
A – To check it’s safe before we declare our intention to change direction.

Indicators

Q – What’s the problem with indicating too early on approach to a junction?
A – If there is a road to the left or right before the junction. It might confuse.

Q – What’s the problem with indicating too late (especially on roundabout?)
A –  Other road users don’t know where we are going!

Q – Are there any times you can think of where it may be unnecessary to signal?
A – When we are moving off – if there is nothing around at all.

Q- Why do we always mirror and signal when approaching a junction or pulling up on the left?
A – The car is moving so things can change quite quickly. Its a good habit to practice!

Therefore, signals should be timed, necessary and correct.

4 Main Signals

  1. Indicators (for an intended change of position).
  2. Brake lights (intending to slow down).
  3. Road position
  4. Speed

Q – When do we use road position as a signal?
A –  When turning left or right at a junction or any other circumstance where we want to signal a change of road position. Often used in conjunction with the indicators.

Q – Why are the brake lights an important signal?
A –  If we don’t use them (say just use engine braking), then other road users behind us won’t know we’re slowing down!

Q – How do I use speed as a signal?
A –  Speed as a signal can be used in quite subtle ways. For example: edging forward at a junction. However, this one has to be used with care. For example: pedestrians waiting to cross and I slow down; they ‘may’ get the signal to cross.

Testimonial  – Aaron passed FIRST time with 9 minors!

Aaron FIRST time 9 minors 3/5/17

Aaron says: “I couldn’t have asked for a better teacher than Paul.”

“He was patient and kind and made sure I always understood what he was teaching. I highly recommend him as a driving instructor!!!

Thank you Paul.

Connect with on Facebook

Prices £££

My prices are straight-forward and upfront – no clever deals!

£51 for 2 hr lesson.
£150 for 6.0 hrs block booking.
£245 for 10.0 hrs block booking.

If you want FIRST CLASS tuition not second rate instruction – choose me!

CALL or Text  Paul Noble NOW on 0778 055 3078 or use the contact page

How to stop stalling!

Great results!

Learning to drive

Suffering from anxiety

Highly recommend

Learnt more in two hours

Read Danielle’s testimonial

Jack’s FIRST time pass!

For more testimonials and information

I’ve learned so much I love driving! Keys to passing your driving test Focused lessons     Results since April     A grade check test result     Intensive driving course   Paul improves your driver ability    Navy pupil passes first time    Zero minors    Intensive driving course     First time pass 1 minor!    The AA




159 total views, 1 views today

Turn in the road

turn in the roadThis manoeuvre use to be called the ‘three point turn’ –  three is ideal but if the road is narrow, then it may be safer to turn in five! Don’t do it if you see the above sign!

Basically, the manoeuvre is normally three times POM (prepare, observe, move)

You are developing three main skills : control, accuracy and observation.

BEGIN

Stop the car close to the left hand kerb leaving maximum road width and space for the manoeuvre.

Tip: Try not to stop with street furniture (lamp posts and trees) to the left of your bonnet, as these will be behind you when you reverse!

Tip: Look out for any pedestrians walking along the pavement towards or behind you.

1. FORWARD – RIGHT

Prepare the car: find the biting point – but not too high as you want to move off slowly.

All round observation as per moving off. You don’t need to indicate.

Move off slowly turning the wheel rapidly to the right to achieve full lock and maximum turning circle. Don’t go ‘half a mile’ down the road before you start to turn!

HANDY TIP: Don’t  cheat by dry steering (turning the steering wheel without moving) – it ruins the tyres!

As you arrive at the centre of the road (the crown) – ’at the crown clutch down’. In other words, you can dip the clutch and let the car roll slightly; controlling with the brake.

HANDY TIP: Try and use as little brake as you can. Control the car mainly with the clutch and never have a high biting point while holding the car with the clutch!

As you slowly approach the right hand kerb, stop slightly early and then edge forward a foot or so, accurately stopping close to the kerb as you can – without touching it. The reference point: is the driver side door mirror well over the kerb.

HANDY TIP: You can turn off the lock to the left slightly (half a turn) as you edge forward – which will make it easier in reverse.

Engage the handbrake and reverse gear.

2. REVERSE  – LEFT

Get a good biting point: this is important at this stage as you will be reversing up a slight hill.

HANDY TIP: Find the biting point before you start looking around: It’s easy to be distracted by cars waiting for you to complete the manoeuvre, thereby putting you under pressure, you end up rushing and making a mistake.

HANDY TIP: Be aware of any cars waiting but don’t engage eye contact. Be assertive.

All round check.

If clear, disengage the handbrake, look over left shoulder and turn the wheel left full lock. Move slowly.

When you get to the crown (middle of the road), start looking to the right as if checking your blindspot.

Reverse slowly until arrive at the reference point. To start with you can reverse back very slowly until you just touch the kerb so you get to know where it is. On a test as long as you don’t bang violently into the kerb you shouldn’t fail, but of course as they say try to avoid it!

Engage the handbrake and select gear

3. FORWARD – RIGHT

As for going in reverse get a good biting point as probably going up a slight incline.

All round check

Move off safely turning wheel to the right

As straighten off and proceed – check mirrors!  Well done!

Prices £££

My prices are straight-forward and upfront – no clever deals!

£50 for 2 hr lesson.
£147 for 6.0 hrs block booking.
£240 for 10.0 hrs block booking.

If you want FIRST CLASS tuition not second rate instruction – choose me!

CALL or Text  Paul Noble NOW on 0778 055 3078 or use the contact page

How to stop stalling!

Great results!

Learning to drive

Suffering from anxiety

Highly recommend

Learnt more in two hours

Read Danielle’s testimonial

Jack’s FIRST time pass!

For more testimonials and information

I’ve learned so much I love driving! Keys to passing your driving test Focused lessons     Results since April     A grade check test result     Intensive driving course   Paul improves your driver ability    Navy pupil passes first time    Zero minors    Intensive driving course     First time pass 1 minor!    The AA

 

 

517 total views, no views today

The left reverse

left reverseThe left reverse is probably the most tricky of all the manoeuvres – in fact most of us find it’s a bit of an art form! However, there is science to it and it can be broken down into five basic stages  with the advantage that it’s then much easier to understand and learn.

In it’s simplest form, it can be thought of as: a straight reverse towards the corner; a few left turns of the wheel; and then another straight reverse.

Basic Manoeuvre

What follows though, is a more detailed explanation (pictures coming soon)

1. Stop about two car lengths away from the corner you are about to reverse left into. (This is standard procedure on the driving test).

2. When ready, move off safely, passing the corner and stopping about two cars lengths past the corner.

HANDY TIP:  It is best to position the car a little further out from the kerb than normal as you are going to be reversing and want to make it easy for yourself! The front passenger door handle just off the kerb as viewed in the left mirror is a good positioning reference point

HANDY TIP: as you pass the corner try and gauge its shape and any potential obstacles around the corner. Keep your eye on the road ahead though!

3. Prepare the car for a straight reverse: With the handbrake on, select reverse gear and find the biting point. Check all round – including the blind spot – to check its safe before slowly moving off. Then, slowly reverse in a straight line towards the corner until the point at which you can no longer see the kerb out of the rear window. You are nearly there!

4. Continue to reverse for a few feet more until the kerb starts to move away as seen in the left mirror. This is the stage at which you introduce small amounts of left lock to follow the kerb. I’ll explain this in greater detail in the section on accuracy.

5. Then, as we follow the kerb there comes a point where it it’s time to straighten up – which again we will explain in greater detail in the section on accuracy. However, basically you can tell looking out the rear by the position of your rear windscreen wiper in relation to the centre of the road.   

6. Continue to reverse in a straight like at least two car lengths or, if there are hazard lines in the middle of the road, three hazard lines. Finish by making the car safe.

HANDY TIP: when you have completed the manoeuvre and are asked to move off do safely! Don’t rush!

HANDY TIP: be aware that roads are often wider at their end for some reason!

Three basic skills:

1. CONTROL: 

To execute this manoeuvre the car has to be kept at a slow but steady speed (less than 5mph) I call it granny walking speed! This requires good clutch control and is exactly the same control used in edging the car slowly forward towards a junction, so practicing a straight reverse first is a pre-requisite.

2. OBSERVATION:

This is key to this manoeuvre: as traffic can come from up to three directions as you reverse:- (a) from ahead; (b) from behind and (c) from the road you are reversing into.

Additionally, you have to be  careful to watch out for pedestrians and cyclists!

Let’s deal with each of the three scenarios

a) From ahead:

As you reverse towards the corner vehicles may come towards you from in front on the other side of the road. If the road is wide you may decide the risk is low and carry on. If you stop then you may wish to indicate.

b) From behind: 

as you reverse towards the corner vehicles may come towards you on your side of the road. You must stop as it is their right of way. You may wish to indicate left as with the reverse lights that will make it clear your intentions.

c) From behind when entering the corner: 

if you are in the process of turning into the corner and a vehicle comes from behind then you must give way, stop and probably pull forward back around the corner.

Additionally, if a vehicle turns into the road at the same time as you then you may wish to lower the risk by stopping.

Observation can be greatly improved in this manoeuvre with a method: with my pupils I use what I call the 360 degree method to ensure that ‘all around ‘ observation is maintained at all times while carrying out the manoeuvre:

  1. Look in the left mirror (this is the point you decide how much left turn)
  2. Look ahead.
  3. Look in right blind spot,
  4. Look behind and over left shoulder,
  5. Look behind and out of rear passenger window
  6. Back to start…..

HANDY TIP: try and judge where the kerb is using the rear passenger window. This is much easier for the taller of us. The benefit is that, because you can’t see the kerb you don’t tend to get too close to it!

HANDY TIP: Never reverse only using the centre mirror!

3. ACCURACY:

Now we come to the bit that most people find the most difficult. How do you follow that kerb without hitting it and either failing the test or damaging a tyre?

The basic method is:

As you check the left mirror as part of the 360 sequence and the kerb is moving away from you then add a small 1/4 of a left turn (from 12 o’clock to 9 c’clock. Note, unless its a really tight one, most corners will need only 3/4 of a left turn of the steering wheel. So, if you count you turn you will know when to straighten off!

Common problems:

  1. Don’t turn too early. Wait until you can see the kerb moving away in the left door mirror. Another problem, is sometimes corners start off shallow and then tighten up. If you put too much lock on too early in the turn then you can start to come too close to the kerb. If this happens don’t hit the kerb, so either stop or turn off the lock!
  2. Keep the car moving at a reasonable speed – granny walking speed. If the car goes too slow or too fast this can cause problems.
  3. Over use of the left mirror. This is fixed by the 360 method. Remember, the left mirror  has an inaccurate and restricted view. As its a convex mirror it makes the kerb look further away than it really is plus from a safety point of view you can see little else. Even if you can’t see the kerb out of the rear passenger window, if you use this you will begin to imagine where the kerb is!Tip: Don’t allow the kerb to leave the left mirror – you are too far out!

    Tip remember that if you successfully and safely complete the manoeuvre (even if badly) – you will pass your test!

    Tip : Watch where the bonnet is. If looking forward I want my bonnet to go left I turn the steering wheel to the right and visa versa.

CALL or Text  Paul Noble NOW on 0778 055 3078 or use the contact page

How to stop stalling!

Learning to drive

Suffering from anxiety

Highly recommend

Learnt more in two hours

 

For more testimonials and information

I’ve learned so much I love driving! Keys to passing your driving test Focused lessons     Results since April     A grade check test result     Intensive driving course   Paul improves your driver ability    Navy pupil passes first time    Zero minors    Intensive driving course     First time pass 1 minor!    The AA

 

 

251 total views, no views today

How to stop stalling!


Many pupils learning to drive for the first time, dread stalling the car! Maybe that’s why some pupils opt to learn on an automatic. There are some simple techniques though, which will help you avoid stalling.

What is stalling?

stallingFirstly, what do we mean by stalling? Simply put, this is when the engine stops running requiring a restart. That’s all very well, but most pupils want to know why and how can they stop it!

To understand why a car stalls though, we need to understand the role of the clutch in all this.

What does the clutch do?

Simply put, the clutch connects and disconnects the engine. Therefore, early on in the first driving-lessons, the pupil soon discovers ‘stalling’: when they forget to de-clutch or depress the clutch when braking to a halt. The stall happens because as the engine is still connected to the now stationary wheels via the clutch plates, the engine always loses the tug or war between them!

Hill starts

stallingAnother situation where a stall is more likely for the novice driver: is the hill start. This is because, a car moving up and away on a hill, requires more power and a good biting point (the point at which the clutch plates connect and the engine begins to be connected to the wheels). Therefore, if the pupil forgets to get a good biting point and put on the necessary extra gas and power, then the car is likely to roll backwards or stall!

Often though, pupils are caught out by the car simply stalling on a very slight incline. Many modern tuition vehicles with small petrol engines are very sensitive; if the pupil forgets to put a bit of gas on before releasing the clutch or brings the clutch up too fast with no gas at all – then the engine just can’t cope and stalls.

Don’t panic!

nervesAgain, stalling may simply take place because the pupil is  worried that they are going to stall! In other words, because they are nervous or apprehensive, they rush and bring the clutch up too fast – and of course they stall! (A bit of a negative feedback loop!)

Another effect, is what I call ‘kangarooing!’ This is when the car nearly stalls: jerking violently backwards and forwards. This effect happens because the pupil’s foot is moving up and down on the clutch pedal in response to the jerking motion.  The answer is to just de-clutch.

How to avoid stalling

To be honest though, one reason most pupils stall is that they don’t use the handbrake enough and ‘move off on the fly’ ( bringing the  clutch up slowly until the car begins to move).

If instead, you use the handbrake to find the biting point accurately, all you need to do to move off,  is release the handbrake and keep your clutch foot still until you are in motion. This is especially useful if you want to move off rapidly say at a busy roundabout because its more reliable and less prone to stalling.

What do I do when I stall?

Lastly though what do you do when you do stall? Firstly, its not the end of the world so don’t panic. Of course, make sure that the car has actually stalled: to do this look at the rev-counter. Is it on zero revs and is the red oil lamp on the dash board on? If so, then you have definitely stalled!

Secondly, make the car safe. In other words, engage the handbrake to stop rolling and restart the engine to restore power.

In conclusion then, to avoid stalling: plan and think about every move off by setting the appropriate gas and biting point and decide whether you are going to move off using the handbrake or on the fly.

Testimonial

Amber

Amber passed FIRST time 5 minors 16/06/16

Amber ( a trainee hairdresser) recently passed her driving test with me after around 50 hrs of tuition.

She had not had any previous lessons and passed first time with only 5 minors. This is what she had to say about my lessons:

“I did my lessons with Paul, would highly recommend. Doesn’t just stay local which gives a really good experience to driving different areas”

CALL or text  Paul Noble NOW on 0778 055 3078 or use the contact page

2016 results

Learning to drive

Suffering from anxiety

Highly recommend

Learnt more in two hours

Read Danielle’s testimonial

Jack’s FIRST time pass!

For more testimonials and information

I’ve learned so much I love driving! Keys to passing your driving test Focused lessons     Results since April     A grade check test result     Intensive driving course   Paul improves your driver ability    Navy pupil passes first time    Zero minors    Intensive driving course     First time pass 1 minor!    The AA

729 total views, 1 views today

Learning to drive?

Learning to drive – how long does it take?

The first question most people ask when thinking of learning to drive is: how long does it take? This of course largely governs how much its going to cost!

40 hours of tuition

learning to drive

Dean Hooper 5 minors 3/06/2016

The short answer is: learning to drive is a life-time learning process. However, in terms of reaching a sufficient standard to pass a driving test, it’s around 40 hours of lessons with a professional instructor.

Indeed, I find that the breakthrough point is usually around thirty hours. Any less than this, and a pupil, no matter how talented, will lack the experience necessary to handle the pressure of the driving test and additionally, not have the experience necessary to drive safely on Britain’s roads.

My parents passed in 10 hrs!

Of course, this figure is often challenged by the pupil’s parents, as they remember (creatively perhaps) that a few decades ago it only took them 10 hrs  of tuition to pass a driving test. So why can’t my Johnny do the same! In fact, as far as I remember – it was a long time ago – I think I only had seven driving lessons before passing first time! The major difference though, was, that  even though cars were allot harder to drive – without mod-cons such as power steering and such like  – the driving test was far easier to pass because roads were simpler and there was far less traffic on the roads. The majority of drivers on the roads today probably wouldn’t pass a driving test!

Theory test

Now pupils have to pass a comprehensive multi-choice theory test with a syllabus of 1600 questions. In addition, they have to successfully complete a hazard perception test which involves watching short clips of video and clicking a computer mouse in response to viewed hazards. Those who don’t revise for this exam normally fail. Both parts of the exam have to be successfully  passed before a practical driving test can be booked.

Going back to the question!

Going back to the question though, it’s best to plan for forty hours of tuition: which is a time-scale of about 5 months – if you have a 2 hr lesson every week. Of course, if you can afford it, you can speed up the process by doing an intensive course 

Testimonial

Trudy started with me after having lessons for a while in a different area of the country. Unfortunately, she failed her driving test and stopped for a while. As she moved into my area, her friend at work – one of my pupils – recommended me and after completing 12 hours of lessons to prepare for test – passed with only 5 minors!

learning to drive

Trudie 5 minors 8/6/16

“I would like to say a huge than you to my driving instructor Paul all his help and guidance made me feel more confident on the road and he was great in helping me ease my test day nerves, allowing me to pass. than you Paul would highly recommend to go with him.”

Trudie

CALL or text  Paul Noble NOW on 0778 055 3078 or use the contact page

Highly recommend

Learnt more in two hours

Read Danielle’s testimonial

Jack’s FIRST time pass!

For more testimonials and information

I’ve learned so much I love driving! Keys to passing your driving test Focused lessons     Results since April     A grade check test result     Intensive driving course   Paul improves your driver ability    Navy pupil passes first time    Zero minors    Intensive driving course     First time pass 1 minor!    The AA

 

 

822 total views, 1 views today

Get Driving AA insurance

What is the Get Driving AA Insurance scheme?

AA Get Driving Insurance is a car insurance product from the AA Driving School.

It is exclusive to AA Driving School pupils. It isn’t on price comparison website. Only AA Driving School pupils are eligible to get a quote.

It’s a telematics product arranged and administered by Insure The Box. A black box is fitted into the car and keeps an eye on driving behaviour.

It has been designed for newly qualified drivers and not just for young drivers. The aim is to help safer drivers pay less for their car insurance.

insurance

What does it cover?

It is comprehensive car insurance including:

  • Cover for third party
  • Damage to your car
  • Accidental damage/fire/theft
  • Personal injury
  • It comes with a set of miles to start with, but top ups are available on a pay as you go basis.

insurance

How does it work?

The driver starts with 6,000 miles on the policy. They can earn bonus miles (up to 100 a month) for driving safer or top up with more miles if they use up the 6,000 initial allowance.

The driving gets scored and the driver gets rewarded for good driving

The box records the driver’s speed on different types of road and how they drive – braking or accelerating sharply, for instance<

To establish the driving behaviour, AA GetDriving also records where the driver drives, how far, how often and when. But unlike similar products, there’s no curfew.

The driver can go online to see how they are doing in terms of scores (red, orange, green on various competencies). The portal presents all the data (good or bad) on driving behaviour.

Other features include the ‘accident alert’ system and the theft tracking. When the box senses a strong impact it sends a message to AA GetDriving and the driver gets a call to see if they are ok. If the car is stolen, the GPS helps locating it.

If the driver has an accident, depending on the strength of the impact recorded by the box, a message with the driver’s location is triggered (unless signal is not trackable) and if appropriate, the emergency services are alerted.

In summary

In summary AA GetDriving is comprehensive car insurance that comes with plus points:

  • Tracks the vehicles location with GPS
  • Rewards safe driving
  • Act as an accident alert system
  • Presents the driving behaviour via an online portal
  • Acts as a theft tracker
  • Records the driver’s driving style

The telematics box fitted to the driver’s car records the driver’s driving behaviour. AA GetDriving awards bonus points depending on the driving scores. This motivates the driver to improve on their scores by driving better

AA GetDriving believes that rewarding positive behaviours is far more effective that penalising negative behaviour.

CALL or text  Paul Noble NOW on 0778 055 3078 or use the contact page

Read Danielle’s testimonial

Jack’s FIRST time pass!

To see my outstanding results from 2015/…

For more testimonials and information

I’ve learned so much I love driving! Keys to passing your driving test Focused lessons     Results since April     A grade check test result     Intensive driving course   Paul improves your driver ability    Navy pupil passes first time    Zero minors    Intensive driving course     First time pass 1 minor!    The AA

696 total views, no views today

Anticipation and planning

What is Anticipation?

thinkAnticipation is the amazing and possibly unique human ability to THINK ahead: to imagine possible scenarios in the future – like fast forwarding a film frame by frame.

To anticipate is to conceptualise; to predict; visualise.

Anticipating in a driving context, is basically spotting and expecting possible dangers or hazards before they occur. This then enables the driver to be prepared and stay safe.

Road signs and markings

skidOf course, the ability to anticipate potential hazards is enhanced by taking note of road signs and road markings early.

This is further facilitated by SCANNING and PLANNING. In other words, an alert driver is not only looking directly ahead but scans ahead in the following areas:  far distance; middle distance; near distance; speedometer; rear view mirror.

C O A S T

coastThe acronym COAST  stands for Concentrate, Observe, Anticipate, Speed and Time.

COAST helps us understand, that if Concentration is lacking then this will impact our ability to Observe everything around. This will further impact our ability to Anticipate and of course if we don’t react – we are going to fast and run out of time!

Open your eyes!

awarenessDeveloping Observational skills therefore, is very important, as you can’t anticipate a hazard you haven’t seen –  unless of course you have been pre-warned by a road-sign or road-marking!

How can an instructor help the pupil in this regard? Questions such as: “What can you see?”, “What’s the next hazard?

Use your imagination!

The question: “What if?” is also a good one. “What if that car ahead pulls out?”

Commentary driving ( talking out loud what you can see and are doing) is also a helpful tool and helps concentration. It can also be done even when sitting in the passenger seat!!

Planning

Of course, it is important not only to see hazards ahead ( SCAN) but we must also PLAN and make a DECISION of how we are going to react. If we just ‘wing it’ and hope for the best then we are likely to fail at some point – have an accident.

So a good question to ask yourself when you see a hazard ahead is : “What are you planning?”  “What are you going to do?”

“If we fail to plan we plan to fail!”

Prioritise

to doThe first step in a good plan is to prioritise. Imagine for example if you are given five college assignments due in in the next two weeks. What’s the best approach? The sensible solution is to sort, prioritise and order the tasks

Its obvious then, that if we don’t plan we may run out of time!

Decide?

How do you make a good decision? Firstly, you must have all the relevant information to hand. So for example, when we emerge to turn left, we must look at least twice to the right and once to the left.

Secondly, we need to give ourselves time to make a good decision? If we not sure we should go- then don’t! Don’t rush a decision!

If there are multiple hazards ahead how do you decide which to react and plan for? Generally, this is the one closest at the highest level.

For Example: Ahead you see a pedestrian on the pavement (green hazard), a car coming towards you (green hazard), a cyclist at 6 car lengths away (amber hazard) and a junction on the left with a car waiting to emerge at 12 car lengths (amber hazard).

The cyclist would be the priority but we would also be aware of the car at the junction.

For most hazard situations the following simple plan is all we need:

Hazard Plan M,S,G

Mirrors –  Slow or signal – Gear

Simple Holdback

IMG_0971We’ve dealt with this situation in detail  in Meeting other vehicles . As we don’t have right of way (we’re the AA car), then we must be prepared to stop and we should be going for a low risk solution.

A low risk solution would be to time it so that when we arrive the red car has passed the blue car. This is the preferred solution.

A high risk solution would be to just go through the gap regardless!

The lowest risk solution would be to holdback.

So using MSG, maybe we check mirrors, off the gas to slow , signal by  covering the brake  without braking  and maybe change down a gear.

A negotiation

IMG_0973 (1)In this situation who has right of way? No one really, but say the red car was much further back, you might use MSG in the following way:

Check mirrors, move to the centre to signal intention to go through gap, maybe even use an indicator to further signal and change down gear if further acceleration is required.

 

Busy Town Driving

IMG_0974

As you approach from the south what can you see? What hazards can you spot?

What speed and gear are you going to arrive at?

Is it safe to go?

What if a car comes the other way, which gap are you going to head for?

Look out for buses and bikes!

If you decide to get into the gap what issues are there if you look parked. What could happen and how might you prevent that?

For lessons CALL or text  NOW on 0778 055 3078 or use the contact page

Results since April

A grade check test result

Intensive driving course

Paul improves your driver ability

Navy pupil passes first time

Zero minors Intensive driving course

First time pass 1 minor!

The AA

803 total views, no views today